# PHP Operators

Operators are symbols that indicate a specific operation to be performed on one or more operands. PHP has a wide range of operators, including arithmetic operators, assignment operators, comparison operators, logical operators, and conditional operators. In this article, we will cover each type of operator in detail.

## Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators in PHP are used to perform basic arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The following table shows all the arithmetic operators in PHP:

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition | $a + $b |

- | Subtraction | $a - $b |

* | Multiplication | $a * $b |

/ | Division | $a / $b |

% | Modulus | $a % $b |

++ | Increment | ++$a |

-- | Decrement | --$a |

### Example

```
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = 5;
// Addition
$c = $a + $b;
echo "Addition of $a and $b is: $c" . "<br>";
// Subtraction
$c = $a - $b;
echo "Subtraction of $a and $b is: $c" . "<br>";
// Multiplication
$c = $a * $b;
echo "Multiplication of $a and $b is: $c" . "<br>";
// Division
$c = $a / $b;
echo "Division of $a and $b is: $c" . "<br>";
// Modulus
$c = $a % $b;
echo "Modulus of $a and $b is: $c" . "<br>";
// Increment
echo "Increment of $a is: " . ++$a . "<br>";
// Decrement
echo "Decrement of $b is: " . --$b . "<br>";
?>
```

### Output

```
Addition of 10 and 5 is: 15
Subtraction of 10 and 5 is: 5
Multiplication of 10 and 5 is: 50
Division of 10 and 5 is: 2
Modulus of 10 and 5 is: 0
Increment of 10 is: 11
Decrement of 5 is: 4
```

## Assignment Operators

Assignment operators in PHP are used to assign values to variables. The following table shows all the assignment operators in PHP:

Operator | Example | Same As |
---|---|---|

= | $a = $b | $a = $b |

+= | $a += $b | $a = $a + $b |

-= | $a -= $b | $a = $a - $b |

*= | $a *= $b | $a = $a * $b |

/= | $a /= $b | $a = $a / $b |

%= | $a %= $b | $a = $a % $b |

### Example

```
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = 5;
// Simple assignment
$c = $a;
echo "Value of c: $c<br>";
// Add and assignment
$a += $b;
echo "Value of a (after a += b): $a>";
// Subtract and assignment
$a -= $b;
echo "Value of a (after a -= b): $a<br>";
// Multiply and assignment
$a *= $b;
echo "Value of a (after a *= b): $a<br>";
// Divide and assignment
$a /= $b;
echo "Value of a (after a /= b): $a<br>";
// Modulus and assignment
$a %= $b;
echo "Value of a (after a %= b): $a<br>";
?>
```

### Output

```
Value of c: 10
Value of a (after a += b): 15
Value of a (after a -= b): 10
Value of a (after a *= b): 50
Value of a (after a /= b): 10
Value of a (after a %= b): 0
```

## Comparison

Comparison operators in PHP are used to compare two values. The result of a comparison is a boolean value, either true or false. The following table shows all the comparison operators in PHP:

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Equal | $a == $b |

=== | Identical | $a === $b |

!= | Not Equal | $a != $b |

<> | Not Equal | $a <> $b |

!== | Not Identical | $a !== $b |

< | Less Than | $a < $b |

> | Greater Than | $a > $b |

<= | Less Than or Equal To | $a <= $b |

>= | Greater Than or Equal To | $a >= $b |

### Example

```
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = 5;
// Equal
if($a == $b) {
echo "$a is equal to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is not equal to $b<br>";
}
// Identical
if($a === $b) {
echo "$a is identical to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is not identical to $b<br>";
}
// Not Equal
if($a != $b) {
echo "$a is not equal to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is equal to $b<br>";
}
// Not Equal With <>
if($a <> $b) {
echo "$a is not equal to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is equal to $b<br>";
}
// Not Identical
if($a !== $b) {
echo "$a is not identical to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is identical to $b<br>";
}
// Less than
if($a < $b) {
echo "$a is less than $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is greater than or equal to $b<br>";
}
// Greater than
if($a > $b) {
echo "$a is greater than $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is less than or equal to $b<br>";
}
// Less than or equal to
if($a <= $b) {
echo "$a is less than or equal to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is greater than $b<br>";
}
// Greater than or equal to
if($a >= $b) {
echo "$a is greater than or equal to $b<br>";
} else {
echo "$a is less than $b<br>";
}
?>
```

### Output

```
10 is not equal to 5
10 is not identical to 5
10 is not equal to 5
10 is not equal to 5
10 is not identical to 5
10 is greater than or equal to 5
10 is greater than 5
10 is greater than or equal to 5
10 is greater than or equal to 5
```

## Logical Operators

Logical operators in PHP are used to combine multiple expressions and produce a boolean result. The following table shows all the logical operators in PHP:

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

and | And | $a and $b |

or | Or | $a or $b |

xor | Xor | $a xor $b |

! | Not | !$a |

&& | And | $a && $b |

|| | Or | $a || $b |

### Example

```
<?php
$a = true;
$b = false;
// And
if($a and $b) {
echo "Both a and b are true";
} else {
echo "Either a or b is false";
}
// Or
if($a or $b) {
echo "Either a or b is true";
} else {
echo "Both a and b are false";
}
// Xor
if($a xor $b) {
echo "Either a or b is true, but not both";
} else {
echo "Both a and b are either true or false";
}
// Not
if(!$a) {
echo "a is false";
} else {
echo "a is true";
}
// And with &&
if($a && $b) {
echo "Both a and b are true";
} else {
echo "Either a or b is false";
}
// Or with ||
if($a || $b) {
echo "Either a or b is true";
} else {
echo "Both a and b are false";
}
?>
```

### Output

```
Either a or b is false
Either a or b is true
Either a or b is true, but not both
a is true
Either a or b is false
Either a or b is true
```

## Conditional Operator

The conditional operator in PHP is also known as the ternary operator. It is used to assign one value to a variable if a condition is true, and another value if the condition is false. The syntax for the conditional operator is as follows:

```
(condition)?value1:value2
```

### Example

```
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = 5;
$max = ($a > $b)? $a : $b;
echo "The maximum value between $a and $b is: $max";
?>
```

### Output

```
The maximum value between 10 and 5 is: 10
```

## Important Points

- PHP has a wide range of operators, including arithmetic operators, assignment operators, comparison operators, logical operators, and conditional operators.
- Arithmetic operators are used to perform basic arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
- Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.
- Comparison operators are used to compare two values.
- Logical operators are used to combine multiple expressions and produce a boolean result.
- The conditional operator is used to assign one value to a variable if a condition is true, and another value if the condition is false.

## Summary

Operators are an essential part of any programming language, and PHP is no exception. PHP has a wide range of operators, including arithmetic, assignment, comparison, logical, and conditional operators. Understanding these operators and how they work is crucial for writing effective PHP code.